Adjustments to the cost per square meter in the program for the resettlement of Russians from dilapidated housing do not keep pace with market prices in the regions, which is why the subjects do not have enough money to fulfill their plans. In addition, the program of resettlement of housing recognized as emergency before January 1, 2017 has not yet been completed everywhere, while the second stage of the program is already in full swing: 7 regions have begun resettling emergency rooms, which is considered until January 2022. And if we take into account that the depreciation of 100 million square meters of housing stock today is more than 60 percent, and every year 2.5 million square meters become theoretically uninhabitable, then it is advisable to make the program for resettling emergency housing permanent.
However, some features should be taken into account and not overload the budget. For example, emergency housing should not be included simultaneously in the federal resettlement program and in the regional overhaul program, spending first billions on its restoration, and then the same amount on its demolition. To speed up the process of resettlement, the mechanism of non-commercial rental of housing should also be used with the attraction of bank financing for its construction. Such recommendations to the Ministry of Construction were made in the Federation Council at a round table on February 10.
There is a program, there are solutions
Today, the total area of emergency housing in Russia exceeds 21 million square meters, including 3.3 million – the remainder of uninhabited housing, recognized as such before January 1, 2017, and 1.44 million – these are additionally identified emergency “squares” that are not included in the current program. The main volume – 14.4 million square meters – is houses recognized as emergency from January 1, 2017 to January 1, 2022, said the director of the strategic projects department of the Ministry of Construction Olga Sharova.
Last year, 192.73 thousand Russians were resettled from emergency housing, it is planned to resettle another 536.5 thousand people, including within the framework of the program launched last year, which has already included seven regions. According to forecasts, another 40 regions this year will complete the previous stage of resettlement (taking into account unsuitable housing until January 1, 2017) and join the new one.
The resettlement programs in the country operate on the terms of co-financing. Most of the money comes from the federal center, while the regions cover a smaller part from their own sources. According to the chairman of the Committee of the Federation Council on the federal structure Andriy Shevchenkothe federal part of the new resettlement program is the responsibility of the Territorial Development Fund, which allocates money to the subjects and monitors the implementation of plans and conditions for providing funding.
The Senators’ analysis of the implementation of the program made it possible to identify a number of obstacles to its implementation. In particular, in the regions there is an increase in the cost of resettlement due to an increase in the cost of housing. For example, the market price of a “square” in the Tomsk region today exceeds 108 thousand rubles, and in the calculations of the Ministry of Construction, it is kept at the level of 88 thousand.
And although the Government last year allocated 24 billion rubles to cover such unforeseen expenses, “the funds were provided only to 43 regions, and even then not in full,” Shevchenko recalled. For example, the deficit of the Arkhangelsk region amounted to more than 4 billion rubles.
To eliminate the need to constantly adjust funding volumes due to changes in the housing market, it is reasonable to recalculate the limits in the new rules. And add money. Under the new rules, the level of the federal part should not exceed 60 percent, but the regions are asking to return to the previous co-financing scheme that has been in force in the country since 2019: 89 percent from the federal budget and 11 percent from the regions.
Of course, without the support of the federal center, the regional authorities will not be able to cope with a heap of problems, but it would be wrong to underestimate their capabilities. It is necessary to thoughtfully use the tools they have, for example, programs for the integrated development of territories, within which it is also possible to resolve the issue with the “emergency emergency”, the first deputy chairman of the State Duma Committee on Construction and Housing and Utilities is sure Pavel Kachkaev.
At the same time, the efficiency of the resettlement program can be increased by ceasing to include emergency housing both in the federal resettlement program and in the regional overhaul program. And the deputy counted more than a thousand such houses. In this case, first billions of rubles are spent on the restoration of housing, then no less money is spent on its demolition.
To save a budget penny and at the same time fulfill resettlement plans as soon as possible, the mechanism of non-commercial housing rental with bank financing should also be used, the senator is sure Arkady Chernetsky.
When will the Bamovites be resettled?
Earlier, Parlamentskaya Gazeta wrote that the Federation Council recommends the Government to provide financial assistance to four regions – Buryatia, the Trans-Baikal Territory, Amur and Irkutsk regions – to complete the resettlement of Russians from dilapidated and dilapidated housing in the area of the Baikal-Amur Mainline.
As the senator explained to the Parliamentary newspaper Vyacheslav Nagovitsynnow in the BAM zone live in temporary housing – and these are panel houses, wagons, container-type blocks – more than six thousand people.
The low pace of the program implementation reduces its effectiveness, the parliamentarian is sure. Municipalities have to maintain a badly worn communal infrastructure that continues to age every year. The incomes of communal services are also declining as a result of the departure of program participants. An integrated approach would be effective – the resettlement of people from temporary housing and its demolition in order to prevent re-occupancy, as well as the elimination of all communal infrastructure and land reclamation, “and all this at the same time.”
Every year, approximately 535 million rubles are allocated from the federal budget to resolve issues related to the resettlement of BAM residents, which is a lot of money. To date, about eight billion rubles have been allocated for the program since the beginning of its implementation. And to complete the resettlement, about 25 billion rubles are needed.
“And if nothing is changed now, then with the current annual amount of funds spent for these purposes, the solution to the problem will stretch for about 50 years. This is, of course, unacceptable. Senators understand that such funds cannot be found all at once, but it is possible to use existing programs aimed at improving the living conditions of our citizens, or apply individual approach mechanisms,” the senator said.
There are several state programs under which you can get new housing, for example, the resettlement of dilapidated and dilapidated housing, the state program for resettlement from the regions of the Far North, for providing housing for the disabled, consider using maternity capital, etc.
In addition, according to Nagovitsyn, it is possible to use installment payment mechanisms through social mortgages, the provision of housing in tenement houses or the provision of rental housing, when the state simultaneously resettles all citizens under the program and assumes all or part of the monthly payments arising from resettled citizens.