Day of the commander of a surface, underwater and air ship of the Russian Navy.
The professional holiday was established in 2007 by order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy at the initiative of veteran organizations and at the request of the regional public organization of admirals and generals of the Navy “Admirals Club”
World Migratory Bird Day.
Commemorative UN date established by the parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals and the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2006.
Since 2018, World Migratory Bird Day has been held twice a year, on the second Saturday of May and October.
World Day for Hospice and Palliative Care.
Celebrated on the second Saturday in October. It was initiated by the World Alliance for Palliative Care, which includes national and regional organizations that support the development of hospice and palliative care around the world.
According to the World Health Organization, 40 million people in the world need palliative care every year, and only about 14% receive it.
10 years ago (2012) the second string of the Nord Stream gas pipeline was put into operation.
The construction of an export gas pipeline from Russia to Europe began in April 2010. It is laid along the bottom of the Baltic Sea and directly connects Gazprom and European consumers, bypassing transit states. The first string of the gas pipeline was put into operation on November 8, 2011, the second – on October 8, 2012. Their total design capacity is 55 billion cubic meters per year.
Nord Stream is the longest underwater gas pipeline in the world. Its total length is 1224 kilometers.
On the night of September 26, 2022, an accident occurred on the gas pipeline. Three transport lines were damaged (two on Nord Stream 1 and one on Nord Stream 2) near the Danish island of Bornholm.
52 years ago (1970) the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature to Alexander Solzhenitsyn.
The writer was first nominated for the award in 1969 by UCLA professors Jacob Malkiel and Denzel Carr. However, the members of the Nobel Committee decided not to award Solzhenitsyn, since the award “could harm him, like Pasternak” (the writer became a laureate in 1958, but was forced to refuse it after the persecution that unfolded against him in the Soviet Union).
A year later, Alexander Isaevich was nevertheless awarded the Nobel Prize “for the moral strength gleaned from the tradition of great Russian literature.” After that, the Soviet authorities launched an “anti-Solzhenitsyn” campaign: the writer’s manuscripts were confiscated, and editions of his books were destroyed. And the publication in France of the book “The Gulag Archipelago” served as the reason for the expulsion of Solzhenitsyn from the USSR. On February 13, 1974, he was deprived of Soviet citizenship and expelled from the country. In exile, the writer and his family lived in Switzerland and the United States. In August 1990, Alexander Solzhenitsyn was returned to the citizenship of the USSR, and in May 1994 he returned to his homeland.
81 years ago (1941) during the Great Patriotic War, the People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR Joseph Stalin issued an order to form women’s aviation regiments.
The initiator of the creation of women’s air units was the pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union, Major Marina Raskova. In accordance with the document, the 586th fighter, 587th bomber and 588th night light bomber regiments were formed as part of the Red Army Air Force. All three units were fully staffed by female volunteers.
Female pilots fought until the very Victory, the air regiments were abolished in 1945. During this time, the 586th Fighter Aviation Regiment made over 4,000 sorties, the 587th Bomber Regiment (later renamed the 125th Guards named after Marina Raskova) – more than a thousand, the 588th (later – the 46th Guards) Regiment – about 23 thousand night flights.
116 years ago (1906) Leo Tolstoy refused the Nobel Prize.
The Russian Academy of Sciences nominated the writer for the Literature Prize. Considering that it would be a great difficulty for him to manage this money, Tolstoy asked his friend, the Finnish writer and translator Arvid Jarnefelt, to make sure that he was not awarded the prize. Yarnefelt fulfilled the writer’s instructions. In 1906, the Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to the Italian poet Giosue Carducci.
542 years ago (1480) the Great Stand on the Ugra River began.
In the late 1470s, the Moscow principality refused to pay tribute to the Great Horde. In the spring of 1480, the ruler of the Horde, Khan Akhmat, set out on a campaign against the recalcitrant principality. The enemy army was stopped by the Russian army in the area of the Ugra River, all the fords through which were blocked. The Russian governors used the advantages of their troops in small arms to the maximum advantage and shot the Horde even in the water. The battle for the crossings lasted almost four days, but Akhmat’s army did not manage to force the river in any area.
For six months, the troops stood against each other, separated by the Ugra, not daring to launch a serious attack. Such an outcome suited Ivan III quite well, and for Khan Akhmat it was tantamount to defeat. As a result, the troops, without bringing the matter to battle, dispersed.
According to historians, the Great Standing on the Ugra River put an end to the Mongol-Tatar yoke, which had dominated Russia for almost three centuries.
55 years ago (1967) in the UK for the first time passed a law regulating the content of alcohol in the blood of drivers.
The norm of permissible alcohol in the blood was 0.8 ppm. The maximum speed was also set – 70 miles / hour (about 113 km / h).
After 10 years, experts calculated that thanks to this law, more than 6,000 people were saved from death on the roads.
77 years ago (1945) the microwave oven was patented
It was invented by American Percy Spencer. The first microwave ovens were cabinets 1.75 meters high and weighing 340 kilograms. They were intended for army canteens or large restaurants.
More compact stoves began to be produced after 10 years. They cost about $3,000.
151 years ago (1871) the Great Chicago Fire started.
The fire broke out at 8 p.m. in a small barn at the back of 137 DeKoven Street when a thief set fire to hay while trying to steal milk. The fire was extinguished only on 10 October. Most of Chicago was destroyed, hundreds of citizens died.
The Great Chicago Fire was the largest catastrophe of the 19th century in the United States.