November 25th day in history

International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

Commemorative date of the UN, established by a resolution of the General Assembly of the organization in 1999 in memory of those killed on this day in 1960 by order of the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo, the Mirabal sisters – Patria, Minerva and Maria Teresa. They were members of the partisan organization “Revolutionary Movement of July 14”.

Violence against women is a global problem. It affects women regardless of their race, ethnicity, social status, wealth or origin.

Day of the Russian military peacekeeper.

The date of this unofficial professional holiday was not chosen by chance. On November 25, 1973, our military took part in the UN peacekeeping operation for the first time during the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Currently, the UN peacekeeping force includes about 60 Russian military observers.

Russian military peacekeeping forces were present in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Transnistria, Tajikistan, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Central African Republic, Chad, Liberia, Angola.

“Black Friday”.

The day when Christmas sales start all over the world. The tradition of starting them on the first Friday after Thanksgiving appeared in the United States in the 19th century, and the name “Black Friday” – in 1966.

There are two versions of the origin of the name. According to one of them, it came from a way of doing bookkeeping. Losses were written in red ink, while profits were written in black. Thanks to the huge discounts, sales increased sharply that day, so that the black color in the reporting prevailed. According to another version, on that day huge traffic jams formed on the roads from those who wanted to visit the shops.

World no shopping day.

This international action was born in Canada in 1992 as a protest against excessive consumption. On this day, everyone can refuse to purchase any goods.

World No-Shopping Day takes place on the first Friday after American Thanksgiving, or Black Friday.

76 years ago (1946) the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University) was founded.

On November 25, 1946, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution on the creation of the Faculty of Physics and Technology of Moscow State University, and in 1951, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) was established on its basis.

At present, the institute is a leading Russian university for training specialists in the field of theoretical, experimental and applied physics, mathematics, computer science, chemistry and related disciplines. It is included in the prestigious rankings of the best universities in the world.

About 7 thousand students study at MIPT, more than 80 academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences teach.

Over the past years, MIPT has graduated more than 36,000 students. Among the graduates of the university, 150 are academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 thousand received the title of doctor of science, 17 thousand are candidates of science.

80 years ago (1942), a Soviet-French agreement was signed, which marked the beginning of the formation of the famous Normandie-Niemen squadron.

72 French volunteers arrived in the Soviet Union – pilots and aviation technicians. The first commander of the Normandy squadron was the famous French pilot Jean Louis Tulian (killed in action in the summer of 1943).

In April 1943, the French squadron began combat operations as part of the 303rd Fighter Aviation Division of the 1st Air Army of the Western Front. In the summer of 1943, the 1st separate fighter aviation regiment “Normandy” was formed. It consisted of four squadrons: Rouen, Le Havre, Cherbourg and Caen.

In 1944, for the heroism shown in the battles during the crossing of the Neman River, the air regiment became known as Normandy-Neman.

During the Great Patriotic War, the pilots of this formation made more than 5 thousand sorties, conducted over 800 air battles and shot down about 300 enemy aircraft. The USSR government awarded the Normandie-Niemen regiment with the Orders of the Red Banner and Alexander Nevsky, and the French government awarded the Legion of Honor, the War Cross with six palms, the Liberation Cross and the Military Medal. 83 French pilots were awarded Soviet orders and medals, four became Heroes of the Soviet Union.

87 years ago (1935), by a decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, the Order of the Badge of Honor was established.

They were awarded to workers, collective farmers, teachers, doctors, scientists, cultural figures, athletes and even students and schoolchildren. The order was awarded “for high performance in industry, agriculture, transport, trade, for special achievements in scientific research, cultural and sports activities, for introducing technical improvements and inventions of great economic importance in all areas of socialist construction, for merits in increasing the combat capability of the Red Army and the defense capability of the USSR.

The Order “Badge of Honor” No. 1, in December 1935, was awarded to the chairman of the collective farm “Batyr” of the Tashkent region Artykbay Tillyabaev.

One of the features of the award is that it could be awarded repeatedly for any new merits and distinctions. The list of awardees includes people who received the order three or even four times. And the chairman of the Leninabad regional executive committee, Mastura Avezova, became a holder of five Orders of the Badge of Honor.

In August 1988, the “Badge of Honor” was renamed the Order of Honor.

105 years ago (1917) elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly began.

Preparations for elections to this representative body of power began immediately after the February Revolution. According to the Regulations on Elections, all citizens of the country over 20 years old could take part in the voting, and military personnel could vote from the age of 18. Women also got the right to vote.

The country was divided into electoral districts, each of which was allocated a deputy quota in proportion to the population – one deputy from 200 thousand inhabitants, with the exception of Siberia, where one deputy was elected from 179 thousand population.

Elections were held for three days – November 25, 26 and 27, but in 12 districts they were postponed to December 1917 – January 1918. 44.4 million people took part in the voting. The Socialist-Revolutionary Party received the most votes (59%), the Bolsheviks came second (25%), and the Cadets came third (about 5%).

The first meeting of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly was held on January 18, 1918 in Petrograd in the Tauride Palace. The deputies of the assembly refused to consider the Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People, which would endow the Soviets of Workers’ and Peasants’ Deputies with state power, and were dispersed on the morning of January 19. And the next day, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a Decree on the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.

152 years ago (1870) by decree of Emperor Alexander II, the royal specific wine-making estate Abrau-Dyurso was created.

In 1873-1874, the first vineyards were planted with an area of ​​over 3.2 thousand square sazhens. Later, special cellars equipped for wine production were built. It created such vintage table wines as Riesling, Cabernet Abrau, Sauternes, Lafitte, Bordeaux, Burgundy.

The “sparkling” history of Abrau-Dyurso began in 1891, when Prince Lev Golitsyn was appointed manager of specific winemaking. He was the first in Russia to establish the production of high-quality champagne, sparkling and other grape wines.

Today, Abrau-Durso is the leading Russian producer of champagne and sparkling wines, produced both in the classic and reservoir ways.

223 years ago (1799) the Central Naval Library (TsVMB) was founded in St. Petersburg.

It was created by Emperor Paul I at the Academic Committee of the Admiralty Board “to discuss issues of shipbuilding and navigation.” The library was located in the building of the Admiralty.

For 223 years, its funds have collected a unique collection of publications in various fields of science (about a million items). In the oldest and largest library of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, in particular, the handwritten “Charter of the Marine”, developed personally by Peter I, the color Atlas of Admiral I.F. Kruzenshtern, published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1813, and other unique publications.

In April 2018, CVMB moved to a reconstructed building on Vasilyevsky Island. On November 25, 2019, on the day of its anniversary, the library opened the doors of its new home to visitors.

287 years ago (1735) the Tsar Bell was cast.

The first huge Kremlin bell, called the Big Assumption Bell, was made in the 17th century by the order of Boris Godunov by the caster Andrei Chokhov. Unfortunately, it did not last long: during a fire in the Kremlin, it fell and crashed.

In the mid-1600s, a new, even larger bell was cast from the fragments of the Great Assumption bell. And it also did not last long, as it cracked from a strong blow of the tongue on it. Instead of a broken bell, another one was cast, but in June 1701, during a fire in the Kremlin, it fell and broke.

In July 1730, Anna Ioannovna signed a decree on the casting of a new large Assumption bell. The execution of the decree of the Empress was entrusted to the Office of the main artillery and fortification. The casting of the bell was entrusted to Ivan Motorin, who made the largest bells for Russian monasteries.

The molding and casting of the Tsar Bell was carried out in a special pit dug on Ivanovskaya Square. The first attempt to cast a bell in 1734 ended in failure. During the work, a fire broke out, as a result of which the shape of the bell was damaged.

The new Tsar Bell was cast on November 25, 1735. The work continued for more than 36 hours. 12 thousand 327 pounds (201 tons 924 kilograms) of bell bronze were poured into the mold.

After the completion of the work, the Tsar Bell, for unknown reasons, remained in the casting pit for a long time. There he was caught by the famous Trinity fire that broke out in the Kremlin in May 1737. When extinguishing the fire, water fell on the red-hot metal of the bell, and a piece weighing 11.5 tons broke off from it.

For more than a hundred years, attempts were made to extract the bell from the pit, which ended in failure. In 1836, the St. Petersburg architect Auguste Montferrand developed a project for a lifting device and a special stone pedestal for installing the Tsar Bell on it. It was removed from the pit and, as an example of foundry art, was installed on an octagonal sandstone pedestal, where it still stands today.

683 years ago (1339) the laying of oak walls began in the Moscow Kremlin.

The first chronicle mention of Moscow dates back to 1147. In 1156, by order of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, a fortified center of the settlement, the Kremlin, was built, and a moat and an earthen rampart were built around it.

In November 1339, at the behest of Prince Ivan Kalita, the construction of new powerful oak walls and towers around the Kremlin began. The fortifications stood for almost a quarter of a century. In 1365 they were seriously damaged in a fire. In 1367, during the reign of Dmitry Donskoy, stone walls began to be built around the Kremlin.

155 years ago (1867) Swedish chemical engineer Alfred Nobel patented dynamite.

This explosive mixture based on nitroglycerin got its name from the Greek word “δύναμις”, which means “strength”.

There is a legend that Alfred Nobel invented dynamite by accident. The bottles in which the nitroglycerin was supposed to be transported were placed in siliceous earth, and one of them leaked. The dangerous substance was absorbed into the ground, and the scientist noticed that the resulting material does not emit nitroglycerin even under strong pressure, and when explosive mercury is blown up by a capsule, it explodes with a force only slightly inferior to pure nitroglycerin.

104 years ago (1918) Rosike Schwimmer became the first female ambassador in the history of world diplomacy.

The Hungarian pacifist and suffragist took charge of her country’s embassy in Switzerland. However, she did not hold this post for long, already in the spring of 1919, with the communists coming to power in Hungary, Schwimmer was recalled from Switzerland.


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