While we all have our preferred subjects in school, geography might not always be at the top of everyone’s list. So, when you hear the name ‘Dagestan,’ it’s not uncommon to wonder whether it’s a country, a province, or something else entirely. Let’s shed some light on this often misunderstood region.
Dagestan in the News
Dagestan made headlines recently due to anti-Israel protesters storming an airport in Makhachkala, a city within Dagestan, on October 30. This incident resulted in considerable chaos, with twenty people sustaining injuries. The protesters, numbering in the hundreds, created a tumultuous scene that required the intervention of security forces to regain control and remove the demonstrators.
This international incident raised questions about why the world turns to Russia when a situation unfolds in a place with a name that could easily be mistaken for a sovereign nation.
Dagestan, despite the name “Republic of Dagestan,” is not an independent country but rather a province of Russia, situated within the Russian Federation. Located at the southernmost tip of the world’s largest country, it’s essential to recognize its regional status within the greater Russian framework.
Dagestan, which translates to “land of the mountains,” is a mountainous region situated in the eastern part of the North Caucasus. It shares borders with Georgia and Chechnya to the west and Azerbaijan to the south. To the east lies the Caspian Sea, offering breathtaking scenery and challenging terrain. Some areas within these mountains are so remote that access is only possible by helicopter.
Dagestan is home to a remarkable ethnic and linguistic diversity, making it Russia’s most heterogeneous region. With over 40 distinct ethnicities and more than 30 languages spoken, it’s a true melting pot of cultures.
The largest ethnic group in Dagestan is the Avars, constituting approximately one-fifth of the province’s population. Additionally, Dargins, Kumyks, and Lezgins are prominent within this diverse landscape. Of the roughly 3.2 million residents, about 10 percent are of Russian ethnicity.
Capital of Dagestan
Makhachkala, the provincial capital, is where the airport incident occurred. Situated along the Caspian Sea coast, Makhachkala has a significant historical background. Once a major trading port in the pre-revolutionary era, it was annexed by the Russian Imperial Army in the 19th century. Today, it serves as a vital conduit for oil and gas pipelines running from the Caspian Sea to the Russian heartland, in addition to housing its oil and gas reserves.
However, Dagestan’s history has been marked by organized crime and instability, and Russian security forces have grappled with an armed insurgency in the region for nearly a decade, with the situation finally quelling in 2017. Dagestan pays tribute to historical figures like Imam Shamil, a 19th-century Islamic fighter who led a resistance against Russian rule for 25 years, with many places and streets named in his honor.
A Glimpse into Dagestan’s 20th Century Onward
- 1920s: Dagestan becomes an autonomous republic within the Russian Federation as the USSR seeks to gain control in the Caucasus.
- 1991: The Soviet Union’s dissolution led to authorities in the Republic of Dagestan remaining loyal to Russia, but the region gained notoriety due to corruption and lawlessness.
- 1990s: Separatist elements from Chechnya conducted multiple armed attacks in Dagestan.
- 1995-1996: Chechen forces took hundreds of hostages in Dagestani hospitals in Budennovsk and Kizlyar, resulting in significant casualties.
- 2007-2017: Islamist insurgency in North Caucasus led to conflicts with Russian forces, with battles often centered in Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.
- 2010: Dagestani fighter Magomed Vagabov was accused of a suicide attack in the Moscow metro, and he was later killed by Russian forces in Dagestan.
- 2017: Russia’s internal intelligence agency FSB claimed to have destroyed the last insurgent outfit in the North Caucasus.
- 2022: Clashes erupted in Makhachkala as protesters opposed Moscow’s call for military reservists to support the Russian war effort in Ukraine, expressing their anger over the loss of Dagestani servicemen in the conflict.
Dagestan’s complex history and diverse culture make it a unique region within Russia, one that continues to be of interest to the international community due to its geopolitical significance and ongoing challenges.