Russian Air Force Day
Established by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of August 29, 1997 “On the Establishment of the Day of the Air Force”. It received the status of a memorable day in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of May 31, 2006 “On the establishment of professional holidays and memorable days in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.”
On August 12, 1912, an order was issued by the Russian military department, according to which a special aeronautical unit began to form in the Main Directorate of the General Staff. By 1914, there were 39 squadrons in the Russian Empire, in which there were 263 aircraft.
The Air Force of the Armed Forces of the USSR was founded in 1918. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Air Force consisted of 79 aviation divisions and 5 aviation brigades, 19 aviation regiments were formed. During the Great Patriotic War, Soviet pilots made more than 3 million sorties, destroying about 60,000 enemy aircraft. Over 2 thousand military pilots were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 65 of them were awarded this title twice, and Alexander Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub three times.
After the collapse of the USSR, the country’s Air Force was significantly weakened. About 35% of the aviation group remained on the territory of the former Soviet republics, and the airfield network of military aviation was also almost halved.
By Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 16, 1997 “On priority measures to reform the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and improve their structure” in Russia by January 1, 1999, a new branch of the Armed Forces was formed – the Air Force, in which the Air Force was united and Air Defense Forces. Later, the Russian Air Force was transferred to army aviation, as well as part of the formations and units of the military air defense.
To further improve the country’s aerospace defense system, in 2015, a new type of the country’s Armed Forces, the Aerospace Forces, was created on the basis of the Russian Air Force and the Aerospace Defense Forces.
Today the Russian Air Force is one of the strongest in the world. In terms of the number of aircraft, they are second only to the US Air Force.
International Youth Day
Commemorative date of the UN, established by the resolution of the General Assembly of the organization on December 17, 1999, at the proposal of the World Conference of Ministers for Youth Affairs.
Traditionally, on this day, various events organized by youth associations are held around the world.
In 2020, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed the federal law on youth policy, fixing the age of young people up to 35 years old inclusive instead of “up to 30 years old”, which was earlier.
International Elephant Day
Established in 2012 at the initiative of the Thai Elephant Reintroduction Foundation and Canadian animal rights activists.
Elephants are the largest land mammals on earth. Currently, in nature, they live in the tropical forests and savannas of Southeast Asia and Africa. Only two species have survived: the Indian elephant, which reaches a height of 2.5 meters and weighs 3-5 tons, and a larger representative – African, with a weight of 5-7 tons, its height can reach up to 4 meters. In Africa, there are about 500-600 thousand elephants, in Asia – about 30 thousand individuals, and these figures are constantly declining. Indian elephants are listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “in a dangerous state”, African ones – as “in a state close to threatened.”
There are other days dedicated to these animals. For example, March 13th is Elephant Day in Thailand, June 20th is World Zoo Elephant Day, and November 30th is World Elephant Day.
9 years ago (2013) a single emergency call number began to work in Russia – 112
It was created by analogy with the American rescue service “911”. By a single emergency number, you can call any of the rapid response services: fire brigade, police, ambulance, gas network emergency service, Antiterror, etc.
A call to 112 is free. You can call this number even in situations where the phone is outside the mobile network reception area, there is no money on the account, and also if the SIM card is blocked. You can call the single emergency number not only from landline and mobile phones, but also from pay phones.
22 years ago (2000) in the Barents Sea, while performing a combat training mission, the nuclear submarine Kursk sank
This tragedy claimed the lives of 118 people. The first reports of a submarine accident came on 12 August. The next day, the submarine was found lying on the ground at a depth of 108 meters. Rescue ships arrived at the crash site. In the following days, several unsuccessful attempts were made by the rescue team to dock with the sunken Kursk. The rescue operation was hampered by a storm and a strong undercurrent.
On August 19, the Norwegian ship Normand Pioneer arrived at the scene of the accident with a British mini-rescue boat LR5. The operation has become international. All attempts made to save the crew of the Kursk were in vain. On August 21, the Chief of Staff of the Northern Fleet, Vice Admiral Mikhail Motsak, officially confirmed the death of the crew of the K-141 Kursk nuclear submarine. On August 22, the President of Russia, by his decree, declared August 23 a day of mourning.
In the autumn of 2000, an operation was carried out to raise the bodies of dead submariners. In 2001, a submarine was also raised to the surface.
In July 2002, the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Vladimir Ustinov at a press conference announced the results of an investigation into the causes of the Kursk nuclear submarine disaster. The death of the submarine occurred at the time of preparation for torpedo firing. The cause was an explosion in the submarine’s torpedo tube due to leakage of hydrogen peroxide due to microcracks in the torpedo.
In memory of the dead sailors of the Kursk, memorials were opened in Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Severodvinsk, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol and the village of Vidyaevo (Murmansk region).
69 years ago (1953) the world’s first hydrogen bomb was successfully tested by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk test site.
It was developed by a group of scientists led by Andrei Sakharov and Yuli Khariton. In order to assess the devastating effects of the new bomb, a whole city of 190 industrial and administrative buildings was built at the Semipalatinsk test site. Military equipment of all types of troops was also installed at the training ground.
During the bomb tests, everything that was located within a radius of up to four kilometers from the epicenter of the explosion was destroyed. The power of the first hydrogen bomb reached 400 kilotons, which is 20 times more than the power of atomic bombs that were previously tested in the USSR and the USA.
93 years ago (1928) the first park of culture and recreation in the USSR was opened in Moscow (now the Central Park of Culture and Leisure named after M. Gorky)
In March 1928, the Presidium of the Moscow City Council decided to establish a park of culture and recreation in Moscow on the territory of the former First All-Russian Agricultural and Handicraft and Industrial Exhibition, Neskuchny Garden and Sparrow Hills. And after 5 months, he opened his doors. In 1932, the park was named after the writer Maxim Gorky.
Today, the Central Park of Culture and Culture is one of the most famous and fashionable places in Moscow. About 40,000 people come here on a weekday, and 250,000 on weekends and holidays.
543 years ago (1479) the Assumption Cathedral was consecrated in the Moscow Kremlin
The first temple on the site of the modern one was built at the beginning of the 14th century. It became the first stone building in Moscow. For a century and a half, the cathedral fell into disrepair, and it was decided to dismantle it and rebuild it.
The new cathedral was founded in April 1472. It was built by the Italian architect Aristotle Fioravanti and consecrated on August 12, 1479.
For six centuries, the Assumption Cathedral was the state and religious center of Russia. Here, at the Zemsky Sobor in 1613, Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov was elected tsar. And starting from Peter II, the Assumption Cathedral was the place of coronation of all Russian emperors. Bishops, metropolitans and patriarchs were elevated to the rank in the church, state acts were announced, and prayers were served before military campaigns and in honor of victories.
699 years ago (1323) the Peace of Orekhovets was concluded
It became the first peace treaty on the establishment of borders between the Novgorod Republic and the Kingdom of Sweden. The document was signed in the Oreshek (Orekhovets) fortress after 30 years of hostilities.
In the agreement, the state Novgorod-Swedish border was established as follows: “… and the divorce and the boundary: from the sea the Sestreya River, from the Sestreya moss, among the moss, the mountain, from the Saya River, from the Sae Sun Stone, from the Sun Stone on the Chermnaya Slit to Lake Lembo … “. The western part of the Karelian Isthmus, together with Vyborg, remained under Swedish rule, while the eastern part, with the fortress of Korela, fell to the Novgorodians.
In 1478, the Novgorod Republic lost its independence and was subordinated to the Muscovite princes, but the Muscovite state also continued to consider the Treaty of Orekhovets as a valid international agreement between Russia and Sweden.
The provisions of the Peace of Orekhovets were in effect until 1595, when a new treaty on “perpetual peace” was concluded in Tyavzin.
40 years ago (1981) IBM released the first personal computer IBM 5150
It cost $1565. The IBM 5150 was equipped with a 4.77 MHz processor and 16 kilobytes of RAM preinstalled. The first PC did not have a hard drive, and the drive was purchased for a fee. Already in the first year, more than 130 thousand IBM 5150s were sold.
114 years ago (1908) the first Ford T car rolled off the assembly line of the Ford Motor Company.
The car was equipped with a 2.9-liter four-cylinder engine and a two-speed gearbox. It cost 825-850 dollars, almost a third cheaper than cars from other companies.
This easy-to-drive car fell in love with the Americans, who gave it the affectionate nickname Tin Lizzie.
For almost 20 years of production, about 15 million Ford-T cars were produced.
171 years ago (1851) American inventor Isaac Singer patented the sewing machine
He was not the first to invent it: the first patent for a sewing machine was issued in England in 1790, then in Austria in 1819, in the USA in 1826 and in France in 1830. However, they were all bulky, inconvenient to operate and maintain.
Isaac Singer improved the sewing machine by American designer Orson Phelps in just 10 days. He positioned the hook horizontally, so that the thread stopped tangling, added a table-board for fabric and a needle holder leg, which made it possible to make a continuous seam, and also supplied the machine with a foot pedal to drive.
In 1851, Singer created The Singer Manufacturing Company, which produced not only small sewing machines for housewives, but equipment for garment factories.